Here's why Warren Buffett trusts Tim Cook
In an interview with CNN’s Poppy Harlow, the billionaire investor Warren Buffett explains why he is optimistic about Apple’s future and what keeps him up at night. 

Watch Interview With Warren Buffett Here

Human Beings Cybernetics And Society
The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society

Norbert Wiener

This is one of the fundamental documents of our time, a period epitomized by the concepts of ‘information’ and ‘communications’. Norbert Wiener, a child prodigy and a great mathematician, coined the term ‘cybernetics’ to characterize a very general science of ‘control and communication in the animal and machine’.

It brought together ideas from engineering, the study of the nervous system and statistical mechanics (e.g. entropy). From these he developed concepts that have become pervasive through science (especially biology and computing) and common parlance: ‘information’, ‘message’, feedback’ and ‘control’. He wrote, ‘The thought of every age is reflected in its technique…If the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries are the age of clocks, and the later eighteenth and nineteenth centuries constitute the age of steam engines, the present time is the age of communication and control.’

In this volume Norbert Wiener spells out his theories for the general reader and reflects on the social issues raised by the dramatically increasing role of science and technology in the new age – the age in which we are now deeply and problematically embroiled. 

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'We're talking about months not years – so it's close. There are exciting times ahead,' says billionaire entrepreneur
The Virgin founder is taking part in demanding centrifuge training which recreates the pressures the human body undergoes during space flight ( PA )

Sir Richard Branson has revealed he is training to become an astronaut, saying he expects to be launched into space within months.

The Virgin boss is trying to get Virgin Galactic – the commercial space travel company he founded – off the ground, and is eager to be one of the first space tourists.

“We’re talking about months not years – so it’s close. There are exciting times ahead,” the 67-year-old billionaire told BBC Radio 4’s You And Yours, to be broadcast on Monday.

“I’m going for astronaut training, I’m going for fitness training, centrifuge and other training so that my body will hopefully cope well when I go to space.”

Sir Richard, tech titan Elon Musk and Amazon boss Jeff Bezos are fronting the charge in commercial space travel as they race to become the first to catapult tourists into space.

While Sir Richard believes Musk is “doing fantastically well” managing to transport cargo into space and building bigger and bigger rockets, he suggests the real struggle is between the Virgin boss and Mr Bezos.

“I think we’re both [Sir Richard and Mr Bezos] neck and neck as to who will put people into space first. Ultimately we have to do it safely. It’s more a race with ourselves to make sure we have the craft that are safe to put people up there.”

The entrepreneur is keen to be one of those first space tourists.

He said his astronaut training had gone well so far, revealing he has managed to build his fitness up by playing tennis four times a day.

“Instead of doing one set of tennis every morning and every evening I’m doing two sets. I’m going kiting and biking, doing whatever it takes to make me as fit as possible.”

The Virgin founder is also taking part in demanding centrifuge training, which recreates the pressures the human body undergoes during space flight.

All astronauts are forced to go through G-force training, which mimics the experience of take-off and travel through the Earth’s atmosphere.

Sir Richard added: “If you’re going to really enjoy the experience, the fitter you can be the better”.

Earlier this year Virgin Galactic accomplished a supersonic test flight of its SpaceShipTwo passenger rocket ship.

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Six years after discovering the Higgs boson, physicists have observed the particle decaying into fundamental particles called bottom quarks (b quarks).

Six years after discovering the Higgs boson, physicists have observed how the particle decays — a monumental contribution to scientists’ understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics and the universe at large, study researchers said.

Excitement swirled in the physics community when, in 2012, physicists discovered the Higgs boson, an elementary particle predicted by the Standard Model that relates to how objects have mass. But this discovery didn’t mark the end of Higgs boson exploration. In addition to predicting the existence of Higgs boson particles, the Standard Model posits that 60 percent of the time, a Higgs boson particle will decay into fundamental particles called bottom quarks (b quarks). 

In research presented yesterday (Aug. 28) at CERN, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the LHC at CERN say they have observed the Higgs boson decay into b quarks. The finding provides major support for the Standard Model, which has many implications for how we understand the world and the universe. “The Higgs boson is the least well-known and in many ways the most baffling particle in the standard model.  Observing its decay to bottom quarks is a major milestone in our understanding of its properties,” Jessie Shelton, a high-energy particle physicist at the University of Illinois who was not involved in this research, said in an email to Space.com. [In Photos: Universe’s Expansion Revealed by Quasars & Cosmic Lenses]

Higgs boson particles don’t live very long. “You’ll never hold a Higgs boson in your hand,” James Beacham, an experimental high-energy particle physicist working with the ATLAS collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) in Switzerland, said to Space.com. But, although the Standard Model predicts what happens to the Higgs boson when it dies, until now, researchers hadn’t observed the particle decay into b quarks, Beacham said. 

Although observing the Higgs boson decay might not garner as much attention as the discovery of the particle itself, which was awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in physics, it is a colossal victory, the researchers said. But the work didn’t come easily. To create b quarks, physicists essentially smash protons together. A lot of background “noise” results from this process, and b quarks “are almost impossible to tease out from background” “fuzz,” or sprays of lighter particles known as jets, Beacham said.

Additionally, ATLAS and CMS are separate detectors, so the collaborations working on each one must make and confirm these observations separately for it to “count.”

The findings are another big step along the journey to better understand the Higgs boson and our universe. And each new discovery or observation, like the discovery of the Higgs boson, has the potential to give way to new questions and experiments. “First [you] discover the thing,” Beacham said about the Higgs boson. “Then, you want to measure everything about it.” 

Additionally, this work represents “a significant landmark in our tests of the Standard Model,” Shelton said. “The Higgs’ main job in the Standard Model is to give masses to the matter fermions and the weak force carriers,” Shelton continued, “observing this decay, then, is our first direct piece of evidence that the Higgs boson gives masses to quarks as the Standard Model predicts.  Observing this decay mode also leaves less room for potential undiscovered particles to contribute to fermion masses.” 

 

 

An ATLAS candidate event for the Higgs boson particle decaying into two bottom quarks. Physicists at CERN recently observed this process, which further confirms the Standard Model of particle physics.

Credit: ATLAS/CERN

Six years after discovering the Higgs boson, physicists have observed how the particle decays — a monumental contribution to scientists’ understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics and the universe at large, study researchers said.

Excitement swirled in the physics community when, in 2012, physicists discovered the Higgs boson, an elementary particle predicted by the Standard Model that relates to how objects have mass. But this discovery didn’t mark the end of Higgs boson exploration. In addition to predicting the existence of Higgs boson particles, the Standard Model posits that 60 percent of the time, a Higgs boson particle will decay into fundamental particles called bottom quarks (b quarks). 

In research presented yesterday (Aug. 28) at CERN, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the LHC at CERN say they have observed the Higgs boson decay into b quarks. The finding provides major support for the Standard Model, which has many implications for how we understand the world and the universe. “The Higgs boson is the least well-known and in many ways the most baffling particle in the standard model.  Observing its decay to bottom quarks is a major milestone in our understanding of its properties,” Jessie Shelton, a high-energy particle physicist at the University of Illinois who was not involved in this research, said in an email to Space.com. [In Photos: Universe’s Expansion Revealed by Quasars & Cosmic Lenses]

Higgs boson particles don’t live very long. “You’ll never hold a Higgs boson in your hand,” James Beacham, an experimental high-energy particle physicist working with the ATLAS collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) in Switzerland, said to Space.com. But, although the Standard Model predicts what happens to the Higgs boson when it dies, until now, researchers hadn’t observed the particle decay into b quarks, Beacham said. 

Although observing the Higgs boson decay might not garner as much attention as the discovery of the particle itself, which was awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in physics, it is a colossal victory, the researchers said. But the work didn’t come easily. To create b quarks, physicists essentially smash protons together. A lot of background “noise” results from this process, and b quarks “are almost impossible to tease out from background” “fuzz,” or sprays of lighter particles known as jets, Beacham said.

Additionally, ATLAS and CMS are separate detectors, so the collaborations working on each one must make and confirm these observations separately for it to “count.”

 

 

The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Physicists with the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at CERN have, six years after discovering the Higgs boson particle, observed the Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks.

Credit: CERN

The findings are another big step along the journey to better understand the Higgs boson and our universe. And each new discovery or observation, like the discovery of the Higgs boson, has the potential to give way to new questions and experiments. “First [you] discover the thing,” Beacham said about the Higgs boson. “Then, you want to measure everything about it.” 

Additionally, this work represents “a significant landmark in our tests of the Standard Model,” Shelton said. “The Higgs’ main job in the Standard Model is to give masses to the matter fermions and the weak force carriers,” Shelton continued, “observing this decay, then, is our first direct piece of evidence that the Higgs boson gives masses to quarks as the Standard Model predicts.  Observing this decay mode also leaves less room for potential undiscovered particles to contribute to fermion masses.” 

In confirming that this particle does, in fact, decay into b quarks, these physicists have shown that the Higgs field, the field behind Higgs boson particles described by Beacham as the “invisible jelly that permeates all of space,” gives b quarks mass. The Higgs field uses the Higgs boson to interact with other particles, like the b quark, and give them mass.

 

SpaceX's 1st 'Block 5' Rocket: A Tale of 2 Launches
The first Block 5 booster sits atop Launchpad 39A, adjacent to the SpaceX hangar. Space reporter Amy Thompson documented its May 11 and Aug. 7 launches.
Credit: Amy Thompson/Space.com

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. — Back in May, I stood near a massive blue countdown clock as the minutes and seconds ticked away to zero. I was surrounded by fellow space reporters, a small group of whom traveled to Florida all the way from Bangladesh. The excitement built and built — and then the launch scrubbed. The Falcon 9 just wasn’t ready to fly that day. But the next day would be a different story. 

We all returned to our same viewing spot, adjacent to the countdown clock, and stared across the water at the sleek black-and-white Falcon 9 perched atop its launchpad, Pad 39A at Kennedy Space Center. This time, everything proceeded as expected: When the clock hit zero, smoke billowed and bright flames lit up the sky as the Falcon roared to life. The sound waves that washed over us several seconds later were noticeably louder than expected, even for this experienced launch-watcher. That’s because this wasn’t an ordinary Falcon, but a souped-up version. 

Known as the Block 5, this is the final variant of SpaceX’s workhorse — meaning there will be no more major design changes. The design will stay the same from now on to help SpaceX achieve a major goal: rapid reusability. [See all our photos from the Block 5’s two launches]

The company already reuses the first stages of its spacecraft, but this iteration will take that to the next level. Previous versions of the Falcon 9 could be used only two or three times, which is an incredible accomplishment, but not enough for SpaceX founder Elon Musk. His plan is to make rockets more like commercial airplanes, capable of flying many times with no action (other than refueling) taken in between flights. According to Musk, the Block 5, which is a culmination of more than 10 years of development, will do just that.

To work toward that goal, SpaceX engineers outfitted this turbocharged Falcon with some sweet upgrades over its predecessors. The design changes — which include improved engines, a more durable interstage (the piece that connects the rocket’s two stages), titanium grid fins and a new thermal protection system — will help the booster hold up better to launch stresses. According to SpaceX, each Block 5 can fly 10 times or more times before requiring light refurbishments, and as many as 100 times before the booster is retired.

Musk has said that we will see a Block 5 launch, land and relaunch within the same day sometime next year. As the months tick away and the aerospace company focuses on its big task for the year, launching the first uncrewed test flight of the commercial crew program, that goal remains a lofty one. However, a more reasonable goal — one that SpaceX is close to achieving — is to see the same Block 5 booster launch more than two times in a year. 

Although it hasn’t reached that goal yet, I watched it get closer when I saw the same booster launch again. [Photos: SpaceX Launches, Lands 1st ‘Block 5’ Falcon 9 Rocket]

Following the first Block 5 launch on May 11, which placed Bangladesh’s first satellite — the Bangabandhu-1 — in orbit, SpaceX officials said they didn’t know when the recovered booster would fly again, as they would most likely take it apart and inspect it to make sure it performed as expected. So, it was a bit of a surprise when the company announced that the Bangabhandu-1 booster would fly again on Aug. 7, just 12 weeks later. 

That second launch, at Cape Canaveral’s Pad 40, may have been more of a spectacle than the first. It’s like with each launch the booster tries to outshine itself. Sitting in folding chairs on a causeway across the water from the launchpad, a group of space reporters waited. The Milky Way was barely visible overhead. One spectator even brought a telescope, and we peeked at Mars — which shined above like a glowing copper orb — before turning the scope to the launchpad. 

The Falcon appeared upside down in the viewfinder but stood ready to launch. We could see what looked like breath emanating from the rocket as the last of the cryogenic fuels that power the rocket were loaded. As the clock hit zero, the night sky lit up bright orange as the Falcon roared to life. Its engines were just as unexpectedly loud as they were the first time. But unlike its first trip to space, which was a bit more dramatic with several holds and a scrub, this flight went off right at the beginning of the window.

As the Falcon climbed to space, the glow from its engines could be seen for several minutes. Surprisingly, after the booster separated from the upper stage and started its descent, far in the distance, we could see the Falcon’s engines ignite for the first of its multiple planned landing burns. Cheers erupted over the loudspeaker as confirmation came in that the booster had touched down on the drone ship a second time.

SpaceX’s successful launch and landing of the Block 5 booster (on the company’s East Coast-based drone ship “Of Course I Still Love You“) with so little time in between is a huge step toward quicker re-flight times.

In another surprising twist, and before the second landing was confirmed a success, the SpaceX launch webcast seemed to suggest that this booster would fly a third time before the end of the year. (Good thing it stuck its landing). Though which mission that booster will be used on hasn’t been announced yet.

A few days after its second flight, the booster stood proudly perched on the deck of the drone ship as it made its way back to port. I stood with a crowd of rocket enthusiasts on the docks, welcoming B1046 (a designation given by SpaceX to identify the booster), some of the space buffs tracking the ship it rode in on to ensure they would get the first glimpse as it peeked over the horizon. 

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nanovesicle
In vivo SPECT/CT images of 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs injected in mice.

Exosomes known as nano-sized extracellular vesicles attracted recent interests due to their potential usefulness in drug delivery. Amid remarkable advances in biomedical applications of exosomes, it is crucial to understand in vivo distribution and behavior of exosomes. Here, researchers from  Seoul National University College of Medicine developed a simple method for radiolabeling of macrophage-derived exosome-mimetic nanovesicles (ENVs) with (99m)Tc-HMPAO under physiologic conditions and monitored in vivo distribution of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs using SPECT/CT in living mice. ENVs were produced from the mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cell line and labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO for 1 hr incubation, followed by removal of free (99m)Tc-HMPAO. SPECT/CT images were serially acquired after intravenous injection to BALB/c mouse. When ENVs were labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO, the radiochemical purity of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs was higher than 90% and the expression of exosome specific protein (CD63) did not change in (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs showed high serum stability (90%) which was similar to that in phosphate buffered saline until 5 hr. SPECT/CT images of the mice injected with (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs exhibited higher uptake in liver and no uptake in brain, whereas mice injected with (99m)Tc-HMPAO showed high brain uptake until 5 hr. This noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled-ENVs promises better understanding of the in vivo behavior of exosomes for upcoming biomedical application.

In vivo SPECT/CT images of 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs injected in mice.

After intravenous injection of 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs or 99mTc-HMPAO, SPECT/CT images were acquired at 30 min, 3 hr, and 5 hr in BALB/c mice. (a) The SPECT/CT imaging showed the significantly intense uptake of 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs in the liver and radioactivity in the salivary glands and intestine until 5 hr. (b) In contrast, high brain uptake and the delayed salivary glands uptake were observed in 99mTc-HMPAO-injected mouse group.

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The online game “Fortnite” has become a smash hit.

Days after “Fortnite” said it would launch an Android app but circumvent Alphabet Inc.’s app store, Google found a major security flaw in the Android version of the game and publicly exposed both the flaw and a request to keep it quiet.

The flaw has since been repaired by Tencent Holdings Inc. TCEHY, +2.16%  -backed Epic Games Inc., which asked Alphabet GOOGL, +1.28% GOOG, +1.27% not to disclose the information for 90 days. Google engineers refused and published the details of the exploit Friday — a week later — as well as the exchange with Epic’s developers.

When app makers circumvent the Alphabet-owned Google Play Store — or Apple Inc.’s AAPL, +0.31%  similar app store — they avoid paying a 30% fee on sales made through their apps, but they do not receive some services included in the fee. “Fortnite” is the most high-profile instance of a developer publicly avoiding the Play Store while launching an Android app, but Friday’s security disclosure is now the most high-profile demonstration of the risks associated with that strategy.

AndroidCentral first reported the news late Friday.

Epic Chief Executive Tim Sweeney has praised open platforms like Android and even said he doesn’t take issue with digital stores for console games. But Google’s control over Android is another story, he has said, because he believes Google isn’t making the same amount of effort to market titles to consumers: So if Epic can avoid it, why not do so?

Don’t miss: How ‘Fortnite’ cracked the code to become the most successful free videogame ever

Instead of offering the app in Google’s Play Store, Epic offered it only as a direct download from the internet. After it was publicly posted on Aug. 9, Google researchers tested it and found the flaw, a serious one that would let any app on an Android phone download and run software without a user knowing.

Epic fixed the bug about a day after learning about it, or six days after “Fornite” officially launched on Android. Users who downloaded the installer for “Fortnite” have likely already received an automatic fix Epic rolled out, but it’s unclear how many people downloaded the flawed Android app or if hackers had made use of the exploit. The Google security team also included a proof-of-concept video demonstrating how people could exploit the bug.

See also: ‘Fortnite’ more important than cryptocurrency to large companies during earnings season

“Fortnite” may need the Android app to re-energize the hugely lucrative free-to-play game. “Fortnite” sales grew at a slower rate in July compared to the prior month, according to research published this week by SuperData, despite the launch of a new season. The free-to-play battle royale game became an outsize success in recent months, and has raked in millions of dollars a month on cosmetic upgrades and subscription sales.

Google and Epic did not immediately respond to a request for additional comment Friday afternoon.

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The Nano Millenium heterojunction transistors

  

Preface
S. Luryi
Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2350, U.S.A
J. M. Xu
Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, U.S.A.
A. Zaslavsky

Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, U.S.A.
This book is a brainchild of the third workshop (FTM-3) in the Future Trends in Microelectronics series. The first of the FTM conferences, “Reflections on the Road to Nanotechnology” had gathered in 1995 on Ile de Bendor, a beautiful little mediterranean French island. The second FTM, “Off the Beaten Path” took place in 1998 on a larger island in the same area, Ile des Embiez. Instead of going to a still larger island, FTM-3 “The Nano Millenium” went back to its origins on Ile de
Bendor in 2001. To compensate, the next FTM is planned on the biggest island of them all, Corsica. Normally the FTM workshops gather every three years; however, the FTM-4 will take place one year ahead of the usual schedule, in the summar of 2003, as one time exception.
TheFTM workshopsarerelativelysmall gatherings(lessthan100 people)by
invitation only. If you, the reader, wish to be invited, please consider following a few simple steps outlined on the conference website. The website at www.ece.sunysb.edu/~serge/FTM.html contains links to all past and planned workshops in the series, their programs, publications, sponsors, and, of course, attendees. Our attendees have been an illustrious lot. Suffice is to say that among FTM participants we find four Nobel laureates (Zhores Alferov, Herbert Kroemer,
Horst Stormer, and Klaus Von Klitzing, of which the former three have received their Nobels after attending FTM)and countless others poised for a similar distinction. To be sure, high distinction is not a pre-requisite for being invited to FTM but the ability and desire to bring fresh ideas is. All participants of FTM-3 can be considered authors of this book, which in a sense is a collective treatise.
The main purpose of FTM workshops is to provide forum for a free-spirited exchange of views among the leading professionals in Industry, Academia, and Government. It is a common view among the leading professionals in microelectronics is that its current explosive development will likely lead to profound paradigm shifts in the near future.

Identifying the plausible scenarios for the future evolution of microelectronics presents a tremendous opportunity for
constructive action today.For better or worse our civilization is destined to be based on electronics.
(PDF) Future Trends in Microelectronics : The Nano Millennium. Available

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The Discovery
The Disks of Baian-Kara-Ula – …they came from the stars

The Hunt 

It all began in 1937-1938, in the mountains of Baian-Kara-Ula, the remote, uninviting slopes located on the border that divides China and Tibet.

An archaeological expedition, led by the highly respected Chi Pu Tei, discovered a number of unique cave burial sites. What he and his team found in these previously unknown caves would soon be considered as something highly unusual.

 

Chi Pu Tei, mountains of Baian-Kara-Ula

For many it would represent one of the greatest discoveries of the century, and change everything they perceived about their distant past and their origins as a people.

Those who believed in the Genesis of the Bible only saw the so-called “scientific evidence” as possible proof of another creation of God intruding into Mankind’s domain.

By faith, this domain and any other living, thinking beings came from the one God worshiped by Christian and Jew alike. 

 

The Caves 

Chi Pu Tei, a professor of archaeology at Beijing University, directed the archaeological survey of a series of interlinking caves. In a report he noted that the “caves” may have been artificially carved, and were more like a complex system of tunnels and underground storerooms.

The walls were squared and glazed, as if cut into the mountain with a source of extreme heat. Inside the caves were several ancient, but neatly arranged burial sites, and in them the skeletal remains of a people; a strange people.

 

 

 

 


The Skeletons 

 

The skeletons, measuring a little more than four feet tall, were found “frail and spindly” with “disproportionately large” skulls.

At first it was suggested that these might be the remains of an unknown species of mountain gorilla. Fellow researchers initially ridiculed Tei’s published findings. The concept of gorillas burying their young was preposterous, but that left one important question to ponder:

“What kind of human beings could these people have been?”

“Were they human at all?”

More discoveries made deeper in the connecting caves eliminated the possibility that apes had lived there.

On the walls carved pictograms of the heavens were found. The Earth, the sun, the moon, and the stars were there, and all were connected by pea-sized dots.

It was obvious that the pictures were meant to be a map or chart of some kind, and that they were created by intelligent beings.

 

he Discovery 

The team then made what was called “the most incredible discovery of all.”

Dzopa or "Dropa

Half buried in the dirt floor of each cave they found unusual disks, originally referred to as “odd stone disks” and described as “obviously fashioned by the hand of an intelligent creature.”

These disks were approximately nine inches in diameter and three-quarters of an inch thick.

In the exact center was a perfectly round 3/4 inch hole, and etched into its face was a fine groove spiraling out from the center to the rim, making the disk look like some kind of “primitive phonograph record.” 

One of the best preserved disks was dated to between 10,000 and 12,000 years BC old, older by far than even the oldest estimates of the age of the great pyramids of Egypt.

This was incredible news, but what was to come would be even more remarkable. A final total of 716 such plates were found, and each held its own mystery.

The grooves, upon closer inspection, were not grooves at all, but a continuous line of an unknown writing! 

 

 

 

                            The Meeting
 

Shortly after World War II, a Polish professor named Lolladoff showed one of the ‘stone disks’ to British scientist Dr. Karyl Robin-Evans, who helped bring the story to the western world.

Lolladoff claimed to have bought the disk in Mussorie in Northern India and that it was supposed to be from a mysterious people called the “Dzopa” (or “Dropa”) who had used it for religious rituals.

Robin-Evans would follow the trail of the Dropa to its origins, and was able to take a rare photograph of the Dropa leaders in 1947 (below image).
 
His visit with the Dalai Lama was legendary, and provided a wealth of information on the reclusive, unique tribe of people. 

 
 

Dalai Lama with Dr. Evans

The Translation 

Many experts tried to translate the hieroglyphs in the 20 years the disc lay in Peking.
 
They all failed. It was not until another professor, Dr. Tsum Um Nui, broke the code and started to decipher the ‘speaking grooves’ that the full implications of the disc were realized. Realized, that is, only by a select few. The outside world remained in ignorance.
 
For the professor’s conclusions on the meaning of the disc were so shattering that they were officially suppressed.
 
The stone disks told an astonishing story of a ‘space probe’ by the inhabitants of another planet which came to crash in the Bayan-Kara-Ula mountain range. The strange, spiral script told how the peaceful intentions of the ‘aliens’ had been misunderstood, and how many of them were hunted down and killed by members of the Ham tribe, who lived in the neighboring caves. 
 

The Dropas ruling couple (1947)
Hueypah-La (4 ft. tall) and
Veez-La (3 ft. 4 in. tall)
According to Nui, one of the lines of the hieroglyphs read,
“The Dropas came down from the clouds in their aircraft. The men, women and children of the neighboring peoples (Ham) hid in the caves ten times before sunrise.
 
When at last they understood the sign language of the Dropas, they realized that the newcomers had peaceful intentions…”
Another section of the writings expressed ‘regret’ by the Ham tribe that the aliens’ spaceship had crash-landed in such a remote and inaccessible mountains and that there had been no way of building a new one to enable the Dropas to return to their own planet.
 
In the years since the discovery of the first disk, archeologists and anthropologists had learned more about the isolated Bayan-Kara-Ula area.
 
Much of what they learned seemed to corroborate the bizarre story recorded on the discs. Legend still preserved in the area spoke of small, gaunt, yellow faced men who ‘came from the stars, long, long ago’. 

The men had huge, bulging heads and puny bodies and were so ugly and repellent that they were hunted down by local tribesmen on horseback.
 
Strangely, the description of the ‘invaders’ tallied with the skeletons originally discovered in the caves by Professor Chi Pu Tei.
As incredible as the Chinese disk story may be, there is more! On February 26, 1967, the Los Angeles Herald-Examiner ran an article about the Dropas. Part of it follows…

 

dropa
The Dropas ruling couple (1947)
Hueypah-La (4 ft. tall) and Veez-La (3 ft. 4 in. tall) Aliens

 

 

The Riddle

“Riddle of Asian Stone Discs from Outer Space”
(original newspaper headline)

Russian archaeologists are puzzling over a remarkable collection of stone discs, thousands of years old, found in the mountains bordering China and Tibet. So hard is it to explain them in terms of earthly experience that the archaeologists do not rule out the possibility that the discs may have come from outer space.

A total of 716 discs, like Stone Age gramophone records have been picked up in recent years by men exploring caves in the Bayan-Kara- Ula mountain range, reports the Soviet Union’s new English-language magazine, Sputnik.

Each disc has a central hole and irregular grooves spiraling out to the edge, but the report says (quite seriously) that the groves are not sound tracks. It is thought that they are some form of ancient writing, but scientists have so far failed to decipher them.

Chinese archaeologists estimate that the discs are about 12,000 years old, but have made no headway at all in trying to explain their purpose or how they came to be in the caves.

The Russians, who have examined some of the discs in a Moscow laboratory, claim to have made two important discoveries. One is that the discs contain certain traces of metal; particularly cobalt. Secondly, when placed on a special turntable they hummed in an unusual rhythm like an electrical charge was passing through them.

The Russian Zaitsev, who has spent 30 years collecting evidence that intelligent beings from outer space have had contact with the earth, believes that the discs may give substance to ancient Chinese legends of small, gaunt, yellow-faced men who came down from the clouds many centuries ago…

Drawings on the cave walls portrayed beings with round helmets, and drawings of the sun, moon and stars were shown with interconnecting rows of dots.

The interconnecting dots could possibly portray the routes traveled by the ancestors of the beings in the graves or might have been drawn to show the outerspace origin of the ones who perished there in the cave …

The Legend

In 1968 the Russian scientist W. Saitsew published a paper which raised a lot of interest in the subject of nonterrestrians visiting earth in the past. Some of the information presented in his paper were based on the work which Professor Tsum Um Nui had done in 1962.

For several years, nothing was heard of the disks. Then, in 1974, an Austrian engineer named Ernst Wegener came upon two of the disks in the Banpo Museum in Xian.

The museum director could tell him nothing about the disks, which had begun to deteriorate, but she allowed him to touch one of them and to photograph them. He did so, but he had only a Polaroid camera with him. These photos are the ones that we see often reprinted today.

In 1994, when Hartwig Hausdorf was in China, he asked the current director of the Banpo Museum about the disks and was told that they had disappeared.

In 1995 China released the following news report:

“In the province of Sichuan, which lies on the eastern border of the Baian-Kara-Ula mountains, 120 people of a previously ethnologically unclassified tribe have been discovered.

The most important aspect of this new tribe is the size of its people: No taller than 3 ft. 10 in., the smallest adult measuring only 2 ft. 1 in!

This discovery might be the first hard evidence on the existence of the Dropa/Dzopa – a people whose predecessors are said to have come from the stars.”

Today, the isolated area between Tibet and China is inhabited by two tribes of people who, in fact, call themselves the Dropa and the Ham.

Once enemies, these two tribes now co-exist peacefully. Anthropologists have been unable to categorize either tribe into any other known race; they are neither Chinese nor Tibetan. Both tribes are of pygmy stature, adults measuring between 3-foot-6 and 4-foot-7 with an average height of 4-foot-2, and body weights of 38 to 52 pounds.

They are yellow-skinned with thin bodies and disproportionately large heads, corresponding to the skeletal remains found in the caves in 1938. They have sparse hair on their bodies and have large eyes that are not Asian in aspect, but have pale blue irises. The Dropa people and their talking stone disks remain as mysterious today as they did in the late 1930s.

Many researcher feel that the Dropa stone disks are definitive proof of an alien race that “came from the stars.”

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